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Ptolemaic Egypt

How Did the Ancient Greeks and Romans Do Banking?

The ancient Greeks and Romans were responsible for some of the world's earliest banking systems, with the Athenians developing a sophisticated banking system in the 5th century BC that would eventually influence economies throughout the Greco-Roman world. Modern Western culture...

Ptolemaic-Roman Mummy Portraits From Egypt Go on Display

A new exhibition at the Allard Museum in Amsterdam displays Greek mummy portraits discovered in Fayoum, Egypt. These were found in a monumental funerary building dating back to the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. Having been uncovered in December 2022 at...

Alexander’s Legacy: The Ptolemaic Era of Greek Rule in Egypt

When Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 332 BCE, he signaled the beginning of the era of Ptolemaic rule. His general Ptolemy established the Ptolemaic dynasty that would govern the vast lands of Egypt for the next 300 years. The...

From Alexander the Great to Cleopatra: Unraveling the Ptolemaic Dynasty

Cleopatra VII Philopator is one of the most famous figures of antiquity, but few people are familiar with the fascinating history of her ancestors. The Ptolemaic Dynasty, to which she belonged, was founded by Ptolemy I Soter, one of the...

Cleopatra, The Greek Queen of Ancient Egypt

Cleopatra VII Philopater ruled over Ancient Egypt from 51 to 30 BC and was the last ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt. After her death, the Roman Empire took control of the country. The Ptolemaic Dynasty was formed by...

What Was Ancient Egypt Like Under Roman Rule?

The Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled Egypt for nearly three centuries. This Greek dynasty came to an end when the Romans defeated the famous Mark Antony and Cleopatra. What was Egypt like under Roman rule? How was it different or similar...

What Did Alexander the Great’s Tomb Look Like?

The quest for Alexander the Great's tomb has occupied researchers for centuries. However, another interesting issue surrounding the famous conqueror's resting place is the question of what Alexander the Great's tomb actually looked like. Fortunately, we have a variety...

16-Meter-Long Ancient Papyrus Found in Egyptian Sarcophagus

A 16-meter-long (52.5 ft) papyrus was discovered recently in an ancient Egyptian sarcophagus by a team of archaeologists. It is the first complete papyrus text to be found in over a century. The discovery was made in Saqqara, a necropolis...

What Did Queen Cleopatra Look Like?

Given the recent controversy surrounding the depiction of  Cleopatra VII Philopator as a black African woman in the Netflix documentary series Queen Cleopatra, the spotlight has again fallen on the physical appearance of this enigmatic and beguiling figure of...

Alexander the Great’s Ideal of World Unity

The ancient Greek ideal of world unity is manifested in the conquests of Alexander the Great and the expansion of his great empire, aiming to Hellenize the world. The notion that kings were divinely chosen was not limited to Greek...